Glossary beginning with N

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Nitrous oxide. A powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential evaluated at 310. Major sources of nitrous oxide include soil cultivation practices, especially the use of commercial and organic fertilizers, fossil fuel combustion, nitric acid production, and biomass burning.

National Action PlanNational Council of Churches in Australia

An ecumenical organisation of AustraliaÕs Christian churches in dialogue and practical cooperation. It works in collaboration with state ecumenical councils around Australia.

National adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs)

Documents prepared by least developed countries (LDCs) identifying urgent and immediate needs for adapting to climate change .

National communication

A document submitted in accordance with the Convention (and the Protocol) by which a Party informs other Parties of activities undertaken to address climate change . Most developed countries have now submitted their fifth national communications ; most developing countries have completed their first national communication and are in the process of preparing their second.

National Disaster Committee or CouncilNational Disaster Management Coordination CommitteeNational Disaster Management OfficeNational Disaster Relief and Recovery Arrangements (Australia)

An Australian Government initiative established to assist states and territories with significant costs of natural disasters. Through the NDRRA, the Australian Government provides financial assistance to alleviate the financial burden on the states and to facilitate the early provision of assistance to disaster affected communities.

National Emergency Executive Group (Australia)Non-Government Organisation

An organisation that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business. They include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives.

National Emergency Management Coordination Centre (Australia)

A part of Emergency Management Australia through which State or Territory authorities must channel requests for Australian Government assistance following a disaster.

National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NZ)

A Crown Research Institute of New Zealand that conducts commercial and non-commercial research across a broad range of disciplines in the environmental sciences. It aims to build New ZealandÕs resilience to weather and climate hazards and enhance its management and economic value of its natural resources .

National Red Cross Societies

A network of community-based volunteers and staff that are formed around the world. There are 189 NRCS that support the public authorities in their own countries as independent auxiliaries to the government in the humanitarian field.

National Registration and Inquiry System (Australia)

A system managed and operated by the Australian Red Cross, used throughout the Australia to unite families and close friends of persons affected by major emergencies.

Natural resources

Any portion of the natural environment , such as air, water , soil, botanical and zoological resources and minerals.

Needs Analysis / Assessment

Needs Analysis-Examination and analysis of information in order to make recommendations about the needs required to improve the situation. Needs Assessment-Collection and organisation of information to identify total needs.

New Zealand Aid Programme

The New Zealand GovernmentÕs international aid and development agency managed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. It aims to support sustainable development and the reduction of world poverty.

Nitrogen fertilization

Enhancement of plant growth through the deposition of nitrogen compounds. In IPCC reports, this typically refers to fertilization from anthropogenic sources of nitrogen such as, man-made fertilizers and nitrogen oxides released from burning of fossil fuels.

No Regrets

<p> Measures whose benefits&nbsp;such as improved performance or reduced emissions of local/regional pollutants, but excluding the benefits of climate change mitigation &nbsp;equal or exceed their costs. They are sometimes known as &quot; measures worth doing anyway.&quot;</p>

No-regrets mitigation options

<p>No-regrets&nbsp; mitigation options are those whose benefits, such as reduced energy costs and reduced emissions of local/regional pollutants, equal or exceed their cost to society, excluding the benefits of climate change mitigation . They are sometimes known as Òmeasures worth doing anywayÓ.</p>

No-regrets optionsÊ

Technology for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions whose other benefits (in terms of efficiency or reduced energy costs) are so extensive that the investment is worth it for those reasons alone. For example, combined-cycle gas turbines -- in which the heat from the burning fuel drives steam turbines while the thermal expansion of the exhaust gases drives gas turbines -- may boost the efficiency of electricity generating plants by 70 per cent.

Non-Annex I Parties

Refers to countries that have ratified or acceded to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that are not included in Annex I of the Convention.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

Organizations that are not part of a governmental structure. They include environmental groups, research institutions, business groups, and associations of urban and local governments. Many NGOs attend climate talks as observers. To be accredited to attend meetings under the Convention, NGOs must be non-profit.

Nonaligned Movement

A movement of 115 members representing the interest and priorities of developing countries. It was formed as an organisation of States that did not seek to formally align themselves with either the Unites States or the Soviet Union, but sought to remain independent or neutral. This has extended to the NAM aiming to provide an independent path in world politics for its member states.

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