United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.  Vanuatu signed the convention on 9 June 1992, and deposited its instrument of ratification on 25 March 1993. The treaty entered into force on 21 March 1994 once 50 Parties had ratified it.

Vanuatu is classified as a non-Annex I party to the convention, which highlights its context as especially vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change and thus have special needs and concerns.

Vanuatu ratified the Kyoto Protocol in July 2001 and the Paris Agreement in September 2016. 

The National Advisory Board on Climate Change & Disaster Risk Reduction is mandated by Vanuatu’s Council of Minister’s to oversee and coordinate all of Vanuatu’s engagement with and obligations under the UNFCCC.  For this purpose, the NAB Secretariat works together with a specially appointed UNFCCC Taskforce . 

In 2012, Vanuatu began to reform its engagement with the UNFCCC, particularly in regards to the composition and capacity of its delegation and transparency of decision-making.  For the 19th Conference of the Parties (COP19), Vanuatu sent a gender-balanced delegation comprised of government, civil society, and academic delegates who achieved unprecedented success for the nation at the negotiations.  The reforms were progressed at COP20 & COP21.  The Delegation for 2016’s COP22  will seek to forward Vanuatu’s top priorities around climate finance & loss and damage.

In regards to its UNFCCC obligations, Vanuatu submitted its Initial National Communication (INC) to the UNFCCC in October 1999, and a Second National Communication (SNC) has been finalized in 2016. The Vanuatu National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA) was submitted in December 2007. Vanuatu has a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) focused on rural electrification.  Vanuatu’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) was submitted in September 2015, and a Nationally Determined Contribution document is forthcoming. 

*Vanuatu has not yet completed its First Biennial Update Report (BUR), or its National Adaptation Plan (NAP)

Vanuatu’s political focal point for UNFCCC matters is Mr. Yvon Basil and the technical focal point is Mr. Jesse Benjamin.   The National Designated Authority (NDA) for the Green Climate Fund is Mr. Jesse Benjamin. A list of all Vanuatu's focal points are below and thematic focal points can be found here.

Vanuatu is a member of the UNFCCC’s Climate Technology Center & Network (CTCN)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), The Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol require that developed country Parties (Annex II Parties) shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties in implementing the Convention. To facilitate this, the Convention established a Financial Mechanism to provide funds to developing country Parties.

A Standing Committee on Finance was established under the UNFCCC to assist the COP in meeting objectives of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention. Although not a fund in itself, the Standing Committee on Finance has been tasked with, among other things, preparing a biennial assessment of climate finance flows. The operation of the Financial Mechanism is entrusted to one or more existing international entities. The operation of the Financial Mechanism is partly entrusted to the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Parties decided to designate the Green Climate Fund (GCF) as an operating entity of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, in accordance with Article 11 of the Convention. The Financial Mechanism is accountable to the COP, which decides on its climate change policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria for funding. The Kyoto Protocol also recognizes, under its Article 11, the need for the Financial Mechanism to fund activities by developing country Parties.

In addition to providing guidance to the GEF, Parties have established four special funds: the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), both managed by the GEF, and the GCF under the Convention; and the Adaptation Fund (AF) under the Kyoto Protocol.

Article 9 of the Paris Agreement stipulates that developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation. Other Parties are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily. The Paris Agreement makes reference to a global goal of at least USD 100 billion per year to be mobilized from public and private sources [1] by 2020, and a new bigger goal is to be agreed by 2025. 

But this is not enough, the $100 billion goal is only a starting point, not an end point.  Securing a sustainable, climate-resilient future will require significant investment on the order of USD 5.7 trillion annually in green infrastructure like clean water, sustainable transport, and renewable energy in order to prevent climate change’s worst effects.

The Paris Agreement marks a step forward in reporting and improving transparency of finance, which is essential to ensure accountability and avoid “double-counting.” Developed countries committed in Paris to continue reporting every two years on finance they have provided and mobilized, but also to start reporting on public funding they intend to provide in following years.

To meet these ambitious climate finance goals, a complex international climate finance framework has evolved, with more than 60 different international funds available for developing countries [2].  Climate finance is now flowing through multilateral channels – both within and outside of UNFCCC financing mechanisms – and increasingly through bilateral channels, as well as in some Pacific Island countries through national climate change trust funds (e.g. Tonga).


[1] Public finance offered by developed countries at COP21 will likely result in at least $18.8 billion per year by 2020. New COP21 pledges to climate funds, including the Adaptation Fund, Least Developed Countries Fund, and the Green Climate Fund (GCF), added up to more than $1.5bn.  All multilateral development banks have also pledged to scale up climate finance in developing countries substantially by 2020, to more than $30 billion per year.

[2] http://www.climatefundsupdate.org/


Vanuatu COP 23 Submissions

Transparency Framework-

Submissions on APA Item 5 (c) Item 5, “Modalities, procedures and guidelines for the transparency framework for action and support referred to in Article 13 of the Paris Agreement”

Accounting Modalities-

Modalities for the accounting of financial resources provided and mobilized through public interventions in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 7, of the Paris Agreement.  FCCC/SBSTA/2016/2, para. 107

Adaptation Communications-

Submissions on APA Item 4(b) Item 4, “Further guidance in relation to the adaptation communication, including, inter alia, as a component of nationally determined contributions, referred to in Article 7, paragraphs 10 and 11, of the Paris Agreement”

Technology Framework-

Technology framework under Article 10 para 4 of the Paris Agreement. FCCC/SBSTA/2016/2, para 26

Capacity Building:-

Paris committee on Capacity-building. FCCC/SBI/2016/L.24


Vanuatu NAB UNFCCC TaskForce Members





Sanlan Willliam

CHAIR | Acting Head, UN Division

Department of Foreign Affairs

Anna Bule

SECRETARIAT | Manager, NAB Secretariat

NAB Secretariat, Ministry of Climate Change and Natural Disasters

Priscilla Samson

MEMBER |VCAN Representative


Christopher Bartlett

MEMBER |NAB Technical Advisor

Government Advisor

Alexandria Masteia

MEMBER| Ministry of Climate Change Secrtor Analyst

Ministry of Finance

Wycliff Bakeo

MEMBER | Ministry of Climate Change Sector Analyst

Prime Minister's Office

Dorosday Kenneth

MEMBER | Director, Department of Women

Department of Women's Affairs


UNFCCC Focal Points






Director General
Ministry of Climate Change Ministry for Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Environment, Energy and Disaster Management
Government of Vanuatu

Private Mail Bag 9054
Port Vila
(678) 24686

Mr Yvon Basil

Acting Director General
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Cooperation & External Trade
Government of Vanuatu

Private Mail Bag 9051
Port Vila
(678) 33180

Mrs. Anna Bule

National Advisory Board on Climate Change & Disaster Risk Reduction
Government of Vanuatu

Port Vila
(678) 24686

Mr. Sylvain Kalsakau

Deputy Permanent Representative & Elections Officer
Permanent Mission of Vanuatu to the United Nations
Government of Vanuatu

800 Second Avenue, Suite 400c
New York, NY 10017
(o): +1 (212) 661 4303
(m): +1 (646) 753 4882

Mr. Brian Phillips

Project Manager
Increasing Resilience to Climate Change & Natural Hazards Project
World Bank/Government of Vanuatu

Private Mail Bag 9054
Port Vila
(678) 24686
(678) 774-4388