Scientific Guidelines for Designing Resilient- in a Changing Climate Marine Protected Area Networks in a Changing Climate

Climate change, resulting from both natural and anthropogenic factors, is expected to affect virtually every aspect of marine ecosystem structure and function from community composition and biogeochemical cycling, to the prevalence of diseases. Climate can affect all life-history stages through direct and indirect processes and the possible effects of climate change for marine populations include changes in population dynamics (body size, reproduction), community composition and geographical distributions.  

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