The main malaria vector is Anopheles farauti. Its peak biting time is early in the evening before most people are inside their mosquito nets. Malaria in Vanuatu is endemic in all except the islands of Aneityum and Futuna. Transmission is seasonal with a peak in the rainy season, between December and April. The overall ratio of P. falciparum to P. vivax is approximately 50:50 with an increasing trend of P. vivax especially in the southern islands. A few cases of P. malariae are seen but these are very rare. The overall incidence of malaria is low in the south and higher in the north. The risk of malaria transmission varies from place to place but the entire population except on the malaria-free islands are considered at risk of malaria. This includes the urban areas in and around Port Vila and Santo that are generally considered malaria free but where transmission may still occur due to the constant movement of population between the urban areas and other endemic islands. Since 2000 the number of malaria cases had increased gradually but following the availability of funding from the Global Fund that trend has been reversed and the number of reported cases is steadily decreasing.  

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